Color Markings Palette and Definitions

1. Basic Instrumentation

Participation
The selected instrument (section or family) is playing.
Solo
The selected instrument (section or family) is playing in solo.
Tutti
All instruments of the ensemble are playing (complete or partial Tutti).

2. Layering

Generic Layer
One or more instruments constituting a coherent whole.
Foreground
One or more instruments constituting a coherent and most prominent whole (main melody, motive, pattern).
Middleground
One or more instruments constituting a coherent but secondary whole (counterpoint, secondary/counter/accompanying melody, motive, pattern, figuration, texture).
Background
One or more instruments constituting a coherent but least prominent whole (accompaniment, counterpoint, secondary motive, pattern, figuration, harmony, texture, bass line).

3a. Layers / Textures

Monophonic Texture
Single voice texture (unisono, "grand unison").
Chordal Texture
All Voices (Layers) are in exact rhythmic synchronisation. A main melodic Voice might or might not emerge from the texture (as opposed to Homophonic-Homorhythmic).
Heterophonic Texture
Principal Voice with other concurrent voice-s (in individual Layers or not) recognizably similar but often with (slightly) different onsets and offsets (quasi-homorhythmy).
Granulated Texture
Instruments (and Modes of playing) as small elements of a global Layer granularity. See also > Timbral Manipulation.

3b. Layers / Relationships

Homophonic Relationship
Standard "Accompanied Melody" :
A primary melodic Voice (or a whole Layer) is supported by one or more additional Layers providing accompanying harmony and often rhythmic contrast.
Homorhythmic Relationship
Standard "Accompanied Melody" :
A primary melodic Voice (or a whole Layer) is supported by one or more additional Layers providing accompanying harmony and often rhythmic contrast.
• Homorhythmic if all Voices or Layers share the same rhythm.
Polyphonic Relationship (Contrapuntal)
Contrasting, independent and co-equal Voices (or Layers) are superimposed.
Polyrhythmic Relationship
Superposition of two or more contrasting rhythms or rhythmic patterns (in individual Layers or not) perceived as autonomous (not readily perceived as deriving from one another).
• Polyrhythmic = different subdivisions of the beat.
Polymetric Relationship
Superposition of two or more contrasting rhythms or rhythmic patterns (in individual Layers or not) perceived as autonomous (not readily perceived as deriving from one another).
• Polymetric =  different beat groupings as superposed meters.

4. Vertical Structuring / Voicing

Juxtaposition
Distribution of instrumental colors (instruments, families, playing techniques, etc.) among the notes of a chord in such a way that the register occupied by each group of notes (sharing the same color) is mutually exclusive. 
Interlocking
Distribution of instrumental colors (instruments, families, playing techniques, etc.) among the notes of a chord in such a way that the register occupied by each group of notes (sharing the same color) is overlapping by at least one note, without any pitch duplication. 
Enclosure
Distribution of instrumental colors (instruments, families, playing techniques, etc.) among the notes of a chord in such a way that the register occupied by one group of notes (sharing the same color) is fully enclaved between two notes of another group. 
Overlapping
Distribution of instrumental colors (instruments, families, playing techniques, etc.) among the notes of a chord in such a way that the register occupied by each group of notes (sharing the same color) overlapping by one, duplicated pitch. 

5. Doubling

Fusion
Several instruments play the same pitch-class in synchrony for more than two consecutive pitches or for a substantial part of a held note, so that both their individual timbral identities are fused into a new, composite one.
Separation
Several instruments play the same pitch-class in synchrony for more than two consecutive pitches or for a substantial part of a held note, so that both their individual timbral identities are kept intact.
Primary / Altering Instrument
Several instruments play the same pitch-class in synchrony for more than two consecutive pitches or for a substantial part of a held note, so that a primary timbral identity is altered by another one.

6. Coupling

Fusion
Several instruments play different pitch-classes in synchrony for more than two consecutive pitches or for a substantial part of a held note, so that both their individual timbral identities are fused into a new, composite one.
Separation
Several instruments play different pitch-classes  in synchrony for more than two consecutive pitches or for a substantial part of a held note, so that both their individual timbral identities are kept intact.
Primary / Altering Instrument
Several instruments play the same pitch-class in synchrony for more than two consecutive pitches or for a substantial part of a held note, so that a primary timbral identity is altered by another one.

7. Interplay and Progression

Segmenting / Dovetailing
A Line, Pattern or Layer is segmented then passed (and/or dovetailed) between several instruments or groups of instruments.
Variation
Instruments (or groups of instruments) pick up and vary similar musical material (passage) previously played by another instrument (or group of instruments) of different timbre.
Contrast
Instruments (or groups of instruments)
[1] repeat the same musical material (passage) OR
[2] pick up portions of a continuous musical flow (not the same musical material) played by another instrument (or group of instruments) of different timbre OR
[3] play contrasting material with contrasting timbre.
Klandfarbenmelodie
The musical flow (melody) is segmented and distributed between instruments (or groups of instruments) of different timbre. (One can consider Klangfarbenmelodie as a special case of Variation or Contrast)
Transformation
Instruments (or groups of instruments) of different timbre exchange a similar musical material or portions of a continuous musical flow in a seamless fashion so that the timbre gradually changes from instruments/groups to others.
Orchestrated Crescendo / Decrescendo
Instruments (or groups of instruments) are added and contribute to the gradual (but local) thickening or thinning out of a single musical line (or flow).
Thickening / Thinning out
Instruments (or groups of instruments) are added and contribute to the gradual (but local) thickening or thinning out of a single musical line (or flow).
Climax
A large combination of instruments contribute to the affirmation of a musical climax.
Dramatization
Use of instruments (or groups) for dramatic effects.

8. Timbral Manipulation

Morphology
Attack Sharp
Attack Medium
Attack Swelled
Attack Soft
Use of the Fast Transient ("Brusque" Onset), Medium Transient ("Moderate" Onset), Swelled Transient ("Swelled" Onset) or slow Transient ("Gradual" Onset, from Niente" being an extreme case) possibility of  instrument(s) or instrumental groups (combination of instruments). Multiple Attack types can be grouped as part of a global gradual process.
Sustain & pedalling effect
Sustaining Instruments / Instruments being Sustained
One or more instruments ("Being Sustained") has/have its/their pitches held and prolonged by other(s) ("Sustaining”).
The sustain envelope can be stable or decaying
Ending Sharp
Ending Medium
Ending Swelled
Ending Soft
Use of the Fast Transient ("Brusque" Offset), Medium Transient ("Moderate" Offset), Swelled Transient ("Swelled" Offset) or slow Transient ("Gradual" Offset) at the end of the sustain period by an instrument or instrumental group (combination of instruments). Multiple Ending types can be grouped as part of a global gradual process.
Resonance
Instrument(s) prolongating an orchestral event after its ending ("Selective Orchestrated Reverberation"). The resonance envelope can be stable, decaying or iterated (Echo effect).
Bonding (Timbral Link)
Bonding Instruments / Instruments being Bonded
One (or more) instrument(s) (Bonding) is/are used to create a BOND (a "common" timbral link) between other instruments or groups of instruments ("Being bound") separated in time.
Timbral Brightness
Timbre Bright
Marked presence of higher overtones in a sound segment.
Timbre Dark
Absence of higher overtones in a sound segment.
Timbral Richness
Timbre Rich
Sound segment laden with multiple overtones.
Timbre Poor
Sound segment featuring few overtones.
Timbral Granularity
Timbre Granular
Creating audible tiny segments of sound called "grains" (ranging from ca 1-100 ms) often referred to as "asperities" ("roughness, ruggedness" or "coarseness").
Timbre Smooth
Creating a sound segment devoid of "asperities".
Timbral Modulation
Pitch Modulation
Repeating oscillating patterns related to pitch (vibrato, trills, glissandi, etc.)
Amplitude Modulation
Repeating oscillating patterns (cyclical cresc.-dim., vibra motor, etc.)
Mode of Play Modulation
Repeating oscillating patterns (sord., pont-> tasto, cross-fades, wah-wah effect, ...)
Fusing Role / Being Fused
One or more instruments ("Fusing") contribute(s) to the timbral fusion between two or more instruments ("Being Fused”).
Timbral Alteration
Alteration of the perceived timbral qualities of an instrument or group of instruments.

9. Exosemantics

Index
CAUSAL CONTIGUITY (Signified: supposed cause | Signifier: perceived Object).
Ex.: “Quivering voice” = nervousness?   |  Imitations of sighs, cries, breathing, heartbeat, etc.
Acousmatic music:  “Source bonding” (Smalley)
Icon
Sonic Anaphone
RESEMBLANCE (Signified: resembles Object | Signifier: perceived Object).
(Schubert babbling brooks, Baroque opera thunder, etc.)
Kinetic Anaphone
RESEMBLANCE (Signified: resembles Object | Signifier: perceived Object).
(Body-time-space): Gallops, marches, walking bass, bumble bees…, etc.
Tactile Anaphone
RESEMBLANCE (Signified: resembles Object | Signifier: perceived Object).
String pads”, backgrounds, etc.
Metonymic Sign
Allusion
SPATIAL-TEMPORAL CONTIGUITY (Signified: Object joined | Signifier: perceived Object).
Allusion: A set of musical structures that refer to another (“alien”) musical style. Examples: Wozzeck, Scene 22. Wirtshaus; Leitmotivs, etc.
Topic
Topic: Richly coded STYLE TYPE
Symbol / Arbitrary Sign
DEFINITON by OTHER SIGNS (Signified: symbolic Object | Signifier: perceived Object).
Series of grammatical lists (sound objects) and syntaxical rules (combination rules) that support the establishment of a musical language and eventually a musical style. (see > Tarasti’s Isotopies)   |  (see > Ratner’s Topics)
Taxonomy of Orchestration Techniques
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